PTSD: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

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Post-traumatic stress disorder, commonly known as PTSD, is a type of anxiety disorder that is triggered by a traumatic event. It is commonly associated with veterans, but anyone can develop this condition. Here are the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for PTSD.

What Causes PTSD?

People develop post-traumatic stress disorder in response to a life-threatening, traumatic event. It could be an event that happened to them or an event they witnessed or heard about. 

PTSD can be caused by:

  • Physical abuse
  • Rape or sexual assault
  • Violent crimes
  • Fire
  • Natural disaster
  • Car accident
  • Plane crash
  • Exposure to war and/or military combat
  • Terrorist attacks
  • Kidnapping
  • Torture
  • Sudden, unexpected death of a loved one
  • Serious, life-threatening illness
  • Miscarriage or difficult childbirth experience
  • Exposure to violence through job (EMT, firefighter, police officer, etc.)

 

Who Is at Risk for PTSD?

It is not known why some people develop PTSD and others don’t. However, there are certain risk factors that have been identified.

Risk factors for PTSD include:

  • Genetics
  • Lack of social support
  • Low IQ score
  • High neuroticism (tendency to react negatively to setbacks)
  • Past trauma
  • Existing mental health condition
  • Experiencing stressful life events at the time of the trauma

PTSD Symptoms

PTSD is diagnosed according to criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Watch out for these symptoms after a traumatic event. If you notice any of these behaviors or thoughts, it could be PTSD.

  • Having unwanted, intrusive thoughts about what happened.
  • Dreaming about the traumatic event.
  • Having trouble falling or staying asleep.
  • Feeling greatly distressed when thinking about the event or being exposed to things that remind you of what happened. For example, someone who was in a bad car accident might feel distress while driving or riding in a car.
  • Deliberately avoiding any thoughts or memories of what happened, and avoiding external reminders such as people, locations, or activities.
  • Unable to remember details of what happened.
  • Experiencing flashbacks – moments where it feels like you are living through the event again.
  • Believing negative things about yourself or others, especially generalized beliefs like “No one can be trusted,” or “I’m a terrible person.”
  • Blaming yourself or other people for what happened.
  • Feeling irritable.
  • Having trouble concentrating.
  • Startling easily.
  • Feeling hypervigilant.
  • Engaging in self-destructive or reckless behavior.
  • Feeling negative emotions much of the time, such as guilt and fear.
  • Difficulty feeling positive emotions.
  • Losing interest in normal activities you enjoy.
  • Withdrawing from friends and family.

An important diagnostic criteria for PTSD is that these symptoms need to last for over a month. If they subside within a month, then the individual will likely be diagnosed with acute stress disorder instead. Symptoms must also be severe enough to disrupt your daily life, and they can’t be caused by drug or alcohol use or a medical condition.

In most cases, you will experience symptoms within months of the event, but it could be years before you develop PTSD symptoms.

PTSD in Children and Teens

Children can develop PTSD as well, although they may display different symptoms than adults, including:

  • Re-enacting the trauma through play.
  • Having nightmares that aren’t specifically about the event.
  • Wetting the bed, even if they have been toilet trained.
  • Acting clingy with parents or caregivers.
  • Forgetting how to speak.

Teens tend to display the same symptoms as adults, but they may experience more guilt and self-destructive behaviors.

If your son or daughter has been through a traumatic event, watch closely for signs of PTSD. The disorder will not go away on its own, and may lead to other mental health disorders like depression, anxiety, or substance use. Also, be mindful of how you as a parent react to the trauma. The National Center for PTSD has found that PTSD symptoms in children are less severe when parents keep their reactions to the event under control.

Talk to your primary care provider if you notice any of the symptoms of PTSD or are concerned that your child is not coping well with the trauma. A mental health evaluation for your son or daughter can also be helpful if they are experiencing symptoms.

Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Treatments for PTSD include medications and trauma-focused therapies. According to the National Center for PTSD, these therapies have the best outcomes:

  • Prolonged Exposure (PE)
  • Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT)
  • Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

Some other effective therapies include:

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
  • Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy (BEP)
  • Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET)
  • Written Narrative Exposure

Two types of antidepressant medications are helpful for treating post-traumatic stress disorder: SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and SNRIs (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors). Examples of medications you might take for PTSD include:

  • Sertraline (Zoloft)
  • Paroxetine (Paxil)
  • Fluoxetine (Prozac)
  • Venlafaxine (Effexor)

There are also a variety of holistic therapies that might help with PTSD, such as trauma-sensitive yoga and meditation.

How Do I Get Help for PTSD?

When it comes to seeking treatment, you might feel overwhelmed or not know where to start. Here are a couple of ideas for seeking out PTSD help.

  • Get a mental health assessment. A good starting place is to get a formal diagnosis of PTSD so you can formulate a treatment plan with your doctor or mental health care provider.
  • Research mental health services near you. Searching terms like “ptsd treatment near me” and “mental health treatment in my area” will show you many local results. As you learn more about each program, you can get an idea of which one may be right for you.
  • Talk to your doctor. Your primary care provider can make treatment suggestions and offer referrals.

Can PTSD Be Cured?

As with most mental health disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder can be a chronic condition. However, it can be successfully managed with proper treatment. Doctors seek to manage symptoms rather than “cure” this disorder. This doesn’t mean your quality of life will be diminished because of your condition – effective help is available.

If you or a loved one is having a hard time coping with a traumatic event, consider getting help from a mental health treatment provider. The Light Program offers mental health treatment services throughout eastern Pennsylvania. Contact us to begin your healing.

Get PTSD Help


References:

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/post-traumatic-stress-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20355967

https://www.verywellmind.com/ptsd-causes-and-risk-factors-2797397

https://www.verywellmind.com/worry-and-anxiety-impact-longevity-2223983

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207191/box/part1_ch3.box16/

https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd#1

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/index.shtml

https://childmind.org/guide/post-traumatic-stress-disorder/

https://www.ptsd.va.gov/understand/common/common_children_teens.asp

https://www.ptsd.va.gov/understand_tx/tx_basics.asp

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-mindful-self-express/201809/why-women-have-higher-rates-ptsd-men

https://www.verywellmind.com/ptsd-treatment-2797659

https://www.bbrfoundation.org/ask-an-expert/how-long-does-ptsd-last